Pain Conditions

Chronic Pain


  • Sciatica

    refers to pain or discomfort associated with the sciatic nerve. This nerve runs from the lower part of the spinalcord, down the back of the leg, to the foot. Injury to or pressure on the sciatic nerve can cause the characteristic pain of sciatica: a sharp or burning pain that radiates from the lower back or hip, possibly following the  path of the sciatic nerve to the foot.


  • Migraine

    Considered the most severe form of headaches, migraines are caused by the enlargement of blood vessels, which releases pain-causing chemicals. An “aura,” or sensory warning, sometimes precedes a migraine attack.  Migraine headaches might result from the relationship between the brainstem’s interactions with the trigeminal nerve, which causes a chemical imbalance.


  • A headache, or cephalgia

    it is pain that occurs anywhere on the head or neck.  Headaches have also been linked to hormonal fluctuations, depression, sinus infections, reactions to food and perhaps the most common cause — lack of sleep.


  • Fibromyalgia

    it is a neurosensory disorder characterized by widespread muscle pain, joint stiffness, and fatigue. The conditionis chronic (ongoing), but pain comes and goes and moves about the  body. The disorder is often misdiagnosed.

Low back pain

  • Low back pain

    it is a common musculoskeletal symptom that may be either acute or chronic. It may be caused by a variety of diseases and disorders that affect the lumbar spine. Low back pain is often accompanied by  sciatica, which is pain that involves the sciatic nerve and is felt in the lower  back, the buttocks, and the backs of the thighs.

Carpal Tunnel

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome

    it is numbness, tingling, weakness, and other problems in your hand because of pressure on the median nerve in your wrist.  The median nerve and several tendons run from your forearm to your hand through a small space in your wrist called the carpal tunnel. The median nerve controls movement and feeling in your thumb and first three fingers (not your little finger).  Pressure on the median nerve causes carpal tunnel syndrome. This pressure can come from swelling or anything that makes the carpal tunnel smaller.


  • Arthritis

    The term is often used by the public to indicate any disease involving pain or stiffness of the musculoskeletal system. Arthritis is not a single disease, but a group of over 100  diseases that cause pain and limit movement.

Frozen shoulder

  • Frozen shoulder (adhesive capsulitis)

    it is a painful condition marked by stiffness and limited motion that progresses gradually until the shoulder is completely unable to move. A thickening of the connective tissue surrounding the shoulder joint is responsible for restricting shoulder movement.

Pre-op / Post-op

  • Rotator Cuff

    The rotator cuff is a group of tendons and muscles in the shoulder, connecting the upper arm (humerus) to the shoulder blade (scapula). The rotator cuff tendons provide stability to the shoulder; the muscles allow the shoulder to rotate.

  • laminectomy

    surgical excision of the lamina of a vertebral usually done to relieve the symptoms of a herniated disc by disk excision. The spinal canal is exposed and the portion of the nucleus pulposus that has herniated through the ruptured disk is removed. This is indicated when conservative treatment is not effective and nerve damage is becoming progressively worseor when the patient is suffering from repeated attacks of leg pain.

  • disc•ec•to•my

    (disk-ek’tŏ-mē), Excision, in part or whole, of an intervertebral disk.

ACL / MCL / Meniscus tears

  • anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

    It prevents the femur from moving backwards onto the tibia, and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) prevents the femur from sliding forwards. There are two collateral ligaments, medial and lateral, that also help to provide support. The meniscus (lateral and medial) is tissue that sits between the femur and the tibia, providing ease of movement between the two bones. There is also articular cartilage that sits behind the patella. The knee is surrounded by bursae, fluid-filled sacs that help to cushion the knee joint.

  • lig’a-ment (L. ligamentum, a band)

    A band or sheet of strong fibrous connective tissue connecting the articular ends of bones, binding them together to limit motion.

  • meniscus tear

    a laceration of the meniscus most commonly caused by abrupt twisting or hyperflexion of the knee joint.

Musculoskeletal Pain

Neck and back pain

  • Neck pain (or cervicalgia)

    It is a common problem, with  two-thirds of the population having neck pain at some point in their lives

  • Neck pain

    Although felt in the neck, can be caused by numerous other spinal problems. Neck pain may arise due to muscular tightness in both the neck and upper back, or pinching of the nerves emanating from the cervical vertebrae. Joint disruption in the neck creates pain, as does joint disruption in the upper back.

Herniated disc / Facet injury

  • herniated disc

    a painful rupture of the fibrocartilage of the disc between spinal vertebrae; occurs most often in the lumbar region

  • fac•et

    A small smooth area on a bone or other firm structure, usually an articular surface covered with articular cartilage

Muscle and Joints

  • Arthralgia

    Sharp, severe pain, extending along a nerve or group of nerves, experienced in a joint and/or joints

  • Myalgia

    /my•al•gia/ (mi-al´jah) muscular pain Sprain / strain:

    1. First degree sprain – is a tear of only a few fibers of the ligament.
    2. Second degree sprain – is a tear of part of a ligament, from a third to almost all its fibers.
    3. Third degree sprain – is a complete tear of the ligament.
  • Strain

    an injury to a muscle in which the muscle fibers tear as a result of overstretching

Shoulders, elbows, wrists, hands

  • Shoulder pain

    discomfort involving the musculoskeletal tissues, nerves, or blood vessels of the shoulder area. This region includes the clavicle, upper humerus, and scapula. A ball and socket joint, the shoulder is capable of wide range of motion and therefore more susceptible to injury. The shoulder performs several different types of movement and plays a role in lifting weight, so shoulder pain is very common and experienced by most adults at some point.

  • Tennis elbow

    an inflammation of several structures of the elbow. These include muscles, tendons, bursa, periosteum and epicondyle (bony projections on the outside and inside of the elbow, where muscles of the forearm attach to the bone of the upper arm):

    1. First degree sprain – is a tear of only a few fibers of the ligament.
    2. Second degree sprain – is a tear of part of a ligament, from a third to almost all its fibers.
    3. Third degree sprain – is a complete tear of the ligament.

Hips, knees, ankles, feet

  • Hip pain

    a general term used to describe pain felt in or around the hip joint. When pain is felt in the hip joint the pain is attributed to joint issues but when pain is felt out or around the hip joint the pain is attributed to problems with the muscles, ligaments, and tendons that surround the hip joint.

  • Knee pain

    it takes on several forms, and there are many ways to treat it. The knee is one of the largest, most complex joints in the body. It is made up of four bones: the femur, the tibia, the fibula, and the patella. The muscles that support the knee are the quadriceps in the front of the knee and the hamstrings in the back. These structures are connected through an intricate compilation of ligaments and cartilage.

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